This is a really tough question to answer. A lot of incredibly smart people in health care are trying to associate data to define this historically vague question. Meaningful, benchmarked patient-reported outcome data is one of the data sets proving promosing in uncovering powerful insights from the patient perspecitve.
Two examples of benchmarking in orthopedics:
As innovators in the PROM collection and benchmarking space, CODE Technology has compiled everything you want to know about benchmarking in orthopedics in our guide, Raising the Bar: A Guide to Benchmarking Basics.